In May 2021, Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences (hereinafter – ViA) with partners from Universities of Tartu and Vilnius as well as the Norwegian School of Economics will start working on an ambitious research project that will be implemented within the framework of the Baltic Research Program. The project “Quantitative data about societal and economic transformations in the regions of the three Baltic States during the last hundred years for the analysis of historical transformations and the overcoming of future challenges (BALTIC100)” will collect quantitative data by creating a quantitative data repository reflecting social and economic transformations in the three Baltic regions over the last hundred years in order to provide a quantitative analysis of a long-term development trends in the region (since 1920).
The project leader is Gatis Krūmiņš, a leading researcher at ViA. He explains the topicality of the project: “We have managed to gather a strong team of interdisciplinary scientists from the Baltics and Scandinavia, and will work to increase the knowledge basis of our countries. And this is not just a question of economics. This knowledge will allow us to analyze historical events which are still tendentiously interpreted for various reasons. For example, events in the Baltic States during the occupation of the USSR."
The project involves experienced researchers from Estonia (Olaf Mertelsmann and Martin Klesment, University of Tartu), Lithuania (Zenon Norkus, Vilnius University) and Norway (Ola Honningdal Grytten, Norwegian School of Economics), as well as young scientists who will develop their doctoral dissertations during the project. A statistical data repository will be created, where data series on demographic and socio-economic development indicators will be available up to the regional level. This repository will serve as an open source of reliable information for planning and forecasting different scenarios in the regional policy-making, as well as for media literacy and strategic communication needs. The project plans to prepare a collective monograph and eight high-quality research papers to be published in international publishing houses.
Baltic100 project is one of the projects of the Baltic Research Program financially supported by the European Economic Area (EEA) grants. The implementation of the project started on May 1, 2021, while the available funding until 2024 is 999092.70 euros.
The people of Latvia have always been great nature lovers. We have long been proud of the traditions of mushroom and berry picking, we look for adventure and go in nature, and outdoor life is even an essential part of our identity. However, as the public demand for well-maintained nature tourism destinations keeps growing, people are also depleting nature. So the question is, are we willing to pay for the well-being experience in nature trails similarly as we pay for our food?
Andris Klepers is an associate professor at Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, doctor of geography and researcher in the Laboratory of Spatial Analysis. His work focuses on geography, regional economics and tourism. Within the scope of his competencies, the professor seeks solutions for the sustainable development of the tourism industry, as well as delves into ecosystem services, landscape quality, urban-rural interaction, understanding of mobility or place marketing and branding issues.
As part of his most recent study, Andris Klepers developed a geospatial data platform that includes interrelated development indicators of tourism places, including measurable economic, environmental and social impacts. Interpretation of the data indicates that the load on nature trails in Latvia is growing very sharply this year. “Summarizing the data collected not only by us, but also by municipalities and the Nature Conservation Agency, the general tendency is clearly proved that the increase in visitors in nature trails is significantly increasing due to the restrictions set by Covid-19. Unable to travel abroad or enjoy a full-fledged offer of public cultural events, the residents of the country travel around Latvia much more actively,” stated the researcher.
"In March, after the first wave of Covid-19, people went to nature in large numbers to strengthen their health, followed by a massive public campaign not to go anywhere at all in April, and dozens of observation towers and nature trails were closed. April was a relatively empty month. The nature trails where the distance of two meters could not be ensured were closed, especially the bog trails. However, in May and June, the attendance of nature trails increased even more sharply, and there was even a double increase in visitors in some trails, while others still remained restricted. The sensors detected that in one observation tower, which was officially closed (indicated by a warning sign and a demarcation ribbon), 1,700 people had violated the ban and climbed it in one month, probably with the thought - Oh! No one is nearby, I'll climb the tower quickly and look around. It also outlines the public attitude towards various rules and bargaining with them," suggested Andris Klepers.
The current situation in the tourism industry is assessed by the researcher as heterogeneous - those who worked with foreigners are on the verge of bankruptcy or undergoing very big changes, while tourism in regions serving local audiences is in some cases even more beneficial than before. However, also in rural tourism the owners of large guest houses, which focused on wedding service and large events, suffer. Uncertainty and the often changing conditions put a great deal of strain on the whole hospitality industry. "It is a human industry that is heavily influenced by mobility. In addition, there are even more variables in this formula, for example, even after the lifting of various restrictions, people still are cautious, their actions change,” said Andris Klepers.
He explained that places with especially beautiful views or symbolic landscapes, where people like to return, are mostly protected nature areas, and there the impact of human flow on nature is not diminishing, but increasing, because people not only seek aesthetic pleasure, but also appreciate easy access, amenities - comfort.
"Nature trails in protected nature areas are related to, among other things, public education, but it is understandable that some people who go there do not always want to explore. They perceive nature as a place to escape from everyday life, relax, walk the dog, do sports - without being too involved in watching nature and learning. These are the ecosystem services that we use, and we should slowly begin to get used to the idea that it is not completely free for us and we are not entitled to it. It is the thinking of a bygone era of production, where the consumer pays only for what is physically produced. We see that the need for nature is growing all over the world, and in order for these places to maintain their natural excellence in the long run, so that they can be preserved, there are some costs to society,” emphasized the professor.
There are two sides to such nature enjoyment initiatives: one is to have the resources to build such a trail, and the other is to maintain the trail later on. The creation of trails improves accessibility and aesthetic quality, reduces depletion to the surrounding area, but the costs are high: “A single organization – the Nature Conservation Agency – over the last 6 years has invested about 10% of all public funding investments in the tourism sector in the improvement of trails, and this is a lot. However, it is only the development of trails; when we come to the understanding that someone has to maintain it, then in most cases everything rests on the shoulders of the municipality, the Latvian State Forest or the Nature Conservation Agency. Maintenance means regular waste management, replacement of wooden parts, which will always be a problem in Latvia due to the climate. In addition, not all public activities in nature require the most biologically valuable protected nature areas - good alternatives with nature trails for running, walking, many other activities are needed also outside these areas, especially in the vicinity of large cities. But there is also a lack of such a balance."
The public good is usually paid for by society as a whole, as is the case with these investments. However, in several countries there is a tendency for those who use public goods more than others to participate more in the maintenance of these benefits, which in a sense is also in solidarity with others. Andris Klepers does not rule out the possibility that in the future it may be necessary to make a partial co-payment for the maintenance of nature trails by paying an entrance ticket. "Convenience is growing with fast mobile payments and remote micropayments - just as well, these can be voluntary nominal donations via smartphone. At the same time, it raises awareness of the value of these sites and, of course, provides support for site management. This is also evidenced by the popularity of private nature trails. A large part of the society no longer lives with the idea that "nature cannot be closed". We have surveyed people's willingness to pay and found that paying for parking is sometimes perceived more naturally than paying for an entrance ticket. However, part of the society is unable to accept the idea that they may need to pay for visiting nature. But by comparison, when going to a safari park in Africa, visitors from any country pay as much as $50 per visit and it seems normal, but paying 2 euros for the entrance to the Gauja National Park - where have you seen that? Another example is from the mountains of Scotland; before going up the mountain trails, the payment sign for parking clearly explains that you also contribute to the maintenance of the trails, the improvement of the site and the promotion of biodiversity. In Sweden, on a suburban cross-country ski trail the operators experimented with voluntary nominal donations before going on the trail that allowed them to pin a red flower to their jacket. The desire to donate for the use of the trail grew rapidly, because many people on the trail, when meeting other skiers, did not want to feel uncomfortable that they did not have a flower pinned – indicating that they do not support the maintenance of the trail. In many places, there are active volunteer movements that are interested in helping to maintain these places. Of course, we must not exaggerate, because we must take responsibility for society as a whole. Nature education is not exclusive to those who earn, there are various social groups who should have access to these resources free of charge or with public support. When I say that we have to pay for consuming nature, I do not mean we need to move completely to paid services everywhere, then we will be unique in the world, but the society needs more understanding and discussion on these issues, including quality recreation outside specially protected nature areas. There should be no public campaigns claiming that everything is available in nature for free. The need for such places and the coexistence of outstanding natural areas will be important for generations, and we must therefore be aware of the various possibilities for reinvesting in public places in the country."
In September, Andris Klepers competed the study, which was related to smart solutions in tourism management, which includes the involvement of technology in tourism decision-making and influencing its development. As a result, a geospatial data platform was developed to track the development of tourism and its economic value or impact on the environment and society at various scales. This makes it possible to sequentially collect data on the efficiency of the operation of all stakeholders involved in tourism, for example, to measure the return on public spending. In fact, it also justifies the next steps for different actions in the context of the administrative-territorial reform: how tourism information centres will transform, how new destination management will emerge. Using different, but interconnected and well-structured data provides a clearer picture of the situation. This, in turn, allows for a much more reasoned search for the best solutions to everyday problems and for shaping future policies.
Information prepared by:
Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences
Public Relations Manager
On Friday, October 16, the mobile telecommunications operator LMT and Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences signed a Memorandum of Understanding, expressing their commitment to promote mutual transfer of experience and knowledge in order to strengthen capacity and research opportunities in the fields of cooperation applicable in the national economy.
The planned cooperation covers important topics such as cybersecurity and critical infrastructure, modern ICT solutions for the economy and society as a whole, analysis of big data in business, Internet of Things and its applications, as well as virtual and augmented reality opportunities in the national economy.
"The key to future success is clearly a business-science partnership. By combining industry experience and university infrastructure, as well as research potential, together we can improve technology solutions and integrate them into various areas of practical life, making everyday processes more efficient. As evidenced by the successful cooperation of LMT with the University of Latvia and Riga Technical University, it always bears fruit because it is possible for the parties to implement projects together that would be difficult to implement separately,” said LMT President Juris Binde.
By signing the memorandum, LMT will ensure testing and validation of research results in the business environment, mutual exchange of experience of staff for the implementation of research and academic activities, support for the transfer of industry experience in study and research process development, use of infrastructure and data for joint research activities, cooperation for the implementation of international research projects and consulting on structuring and using big data in research.
In its turn, Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences plans to identify the needs of the industry more precisely and purposefully implement international research projects and corresponding academic activities by using laboratories and infrastructure and attracting international research and academic staff.
"For universities, cooperation with leading industry companies is both a valuable investment, contributing to the development of innovations, and a benefit because such exchange of experience allows to adapt the study content to the real needs of the industry," said Gatis Krūmiņš, Rector of Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences.
MMV11 is hosted by Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with Latvia Convention Bureau, Jūrmala City Council and Nature Conservation Agency. Main theme of the Conference: Behavioural changes of outdoor and landscape recreational consumption in Global Green Deal context.
Scheduled sessions of the conference:
Monitoring and management of visitors: lessons learned. Management practices of co-management in recreation areas: the empowerment of communities for pro-nature initiatives.
Management of natural recreational resources within the framework of the climate, environmental and social crisis: the need for the economic transformation, reducing greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing development.
Behaviour of different visitor segments outdoors, current trends, the need for a change, discoveries of new consumption patterns.
Outdoor sport and recreational activities versus the goals of biodiversity conservation: the regulations and policies of nature protection and management.
Managing the quality of traditional and contemporary landscapes & the context of rural-urban mobility, tourism and recreation infrastructure development.
Global Green Deal and climate neutral economy for tourism and recreational industries.
Carrying capacity of the environment, ecosystem services, society demand for emotional well-being connected to nature.
Landscape diversity and the services of specially protected natural areas. Urbanization and consumption of outdoors and rural landscapes: the accessibility and quality of natural capital.
Landscape quality monitoring and key performance indicators for the measure of progress, sustainable development. Landscapes of national importance and sustainable management practices and policies.
Introduction of eco-innovations and technological advances in managing visitor flow in nature areas.
Zoos As Conservation Parks: Reframing Visitor Management.
Outdoor recreation advocacy as a social movement for sustainable development and change.
Managing wildlife tourism.
Outdoor recreation planning & management in protected areas, using the Conservation Standards.
For more information, please visit: https://www.hespi.lv/en/mmv11